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Africa

"Donald Trump may push African countries away from..."

52

Overlooked

by 3 Jurors

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km2 (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of Earth's total surface area and 20.4 percent of its total land area. With 1.1 billion people as of 2013, it accounts for about 15% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign states ("countries"), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition.
Africa's population is the youngest among all the continents; 50% of Africans are 19 years old or younger.
Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria by population. Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.

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geopolitics.panjury.com

Geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy to understand, explain and predict international political behavior through geographical variables. These include area studies, climate, topography,...

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While China is a newer partner to Africa than the United States, it plays a powerful role as a counterexample. Many African governments see China as an model of a country that managed to develop without adopting American-style political systems. Until China came along, African countries were, (and still are,) prodded to follow Western ideas of democracy and civil society, as a gateway to modernity and development.

Chinese development presents a different narrative, one that some African governments interested in building centralized power, have eagerly embraced. The idea of the United States as the guardian of liberal values against powers like China, a story with echoes in the Cold War, might now be upended by the election of Trump to the US presidency. China’s counter-narrative of booming development guided by a strong centralized state is likely to become that much more appealing to politicians who want to believe in state power anyway.

The idea of the US as the guardian of liberal values against powers like China might now be upended.We still don’t know what a Trump presidency will actually look like, especially as it relates to Africa. However, the president elect’s outspoken antipathy to traditional human rights principles—including his threats to prosecute his opponent Hillary Clinton after the election, his plan to build a wall between the US and Mexico, and his gleeful promises to ‘bomb the shit out of ISIS’— don’t fit the picture US public diplomacy has so far liked to present in Africa.

In this sense, the Trump presidency could herald the end of the binary pull between the US and China that we have seen in Africa over the last 15 years. The traditional narrative about the US and China’s role in Africa, presented by the US government, has been a choice between US-style development via liberal human rights and China-style authoritarianism.

U.S. President Barack Obama applauds the assembly at the end of his remarks to the African Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia July 28, 2015. Obama toured a U.S.-supported food factory in Ethiopia on Tuesday on the last leg of an Africa trip, before winding up his visit at the African Union where he will become the first U.S. president to address the 54-nation body.

Yet, America’s model of development and democracy has already suffered some setbacks on the continent, even before the election. When the US government talks about the US as a human rights champion in Africa, officials only seem to take into account official diplomatic messaging. Other realities, like the rapid militarization of the US presence in Africa, go unmentioned.

US diplomats also don’t seem to realize that Africans have access to the internet. When presenting itself as a human rights paragon, they don’t completely grasp how images of black Americans being targeted by the police play in Africa. Africans are keen consumers of African-American media, and they are well aware of debates about racism and what it means to be black in America.

While Trump might alienate Africans, American citizens’ reaction to his actions might draw them back in. If president Trump follows through on some of the promises made during his campaign, Africans will find the ideal of American democracy a lot harder to share. This would further muddy the idea that in terms of both an ally and a development model, Africa has to choose between a democratic superpower and an authoritarian one. If both superpowers come to seem equally iffy on human rights, governance and civil society, then Africa’s choice of a development model will be more driven by these powers’ recent track records on economic development.

on November 29, 2016
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Geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy to understand, explain and predict international political behavior through geographical variables. These include area studies, climate, topography,...

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The United Republic of Tanzania in eastern Africa and China have agreed to further bolster military ties following the three-day visit of a ranking general of the People's Liberation Army (PLA).

There are rumors the PLA might want to establish a military base in Tanzania, which if approved, would be its second overseas military naval base. China's first overseas base, in nearby Djibouti, will open in 2017.

General Fan Changlong, Vice-Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the PLA, met with Tazanian President John Magufuli during the former's visit intended to implement a consensus reached by President Magufuli and Chinese President Xi Jinping that further advanced relations between the two countries whose diplomatic ties go back to 1970.

President Magufuli told Gen. Fan to assure Xi of Tanzania's continued military cooperation in strengthening the fighting capacity of both their armies. Both leaders also discussed a range of issues based on the long-standing military cooperation between their countries.

on November 27, 2016
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Geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy to understand, explain and predict international political behavior through geographical variables. These include area studies, climate, topography,...

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ARGUMENTS over parking spaces rarely turn into international incidents. Not so in June last year at Vurra, on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Young Congolese walked 300 metres beyond the customs post ostensibly to build a parking yard, in what they said was no man’s land. Ugandans demurred, blocking the road with logs. The border was closed for two months. Such confusion is not unusual in Africa. Only a third of its 83,000km of land borders is properly demarcated. The African Union (AU) is helping states to tidy up the situation, but it has repeatedly pushed back the deadline for finishing the job. It was meant to be done in 2012, then 2017, and now, it was announced last month, in 2022. Why is it so hard to demarcate Africa’s borders and why does it matter?

Most pre-colonial borders were fuzzy. Europeans changed that, carving up territory by drawing lines on maps. ‘We have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other,” mused the British prime minister, Lord Salisbury, in 1890, “only hindered by the small impediments that we never knew where the mountains and rivers and lakes were.” It took 30 years to settle the boundary between Congo and Uganda, for example, after the Belgians twice got their rivers muddled up. In 1964 independent African states, anxious to avoid conflict, agreed to stick with the colonial borders. But they made little effort to mark out frontiers on the ground. 

Pity the bureaucrats who have to sort out this mess. Their quest begins with dusty documents, often held in European archives. Old treaties may refer to rivers which have changed course, or tracks that have disappeared. Then teams of GPS-wielding surveyors must traipse through rugged borderlands, erecting pillars, reassuring locals and in some places dodging landmines. Above everything, inevitably, is politics. Many borderlands are coveted for pasture or minerals: disputed lakes harbour oil, gas and fish. Climate change and population growth are putting pressure on resources, making conflicts harder to resolve. The contest over Abyei, on the relatively new international border between Sudan and South Sudan, is illustrative: its knotty history goes back to the drawing of provincial boundaries in 1905, and takes in ethnic conflicts sharpened by civil war, growing competition for grazing lands and oil fields that until recently produced a quarter of Sudanese output. 

Full-blown territorial wars have been rare in Africa when compared to the history of Europe. But 19 border disputes are bubbling across the continent, says Fred Gateretse-Ngoga, the AU’s head of conflict prevention. In 1998 Ethiopia and Eritrea went to war over a border town, citing different interpretations of colonial treaties. Nigeria and Cameroon almost did the same over a peninsula (the International Court of Justice ruled in Cameroon’s favour in 2002). Fixing frontiers would cement peace and help local economies. Mali and Burkina Faso, which have twice gone to war, now share a joint health clinic on the border. Perhaps Uganda and the DRC, which launched a $200,000 joint demarcation exercise in Vurra last April, should consider sharing a car park.

on November 23, 2016
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Geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy to understand, explain and predict international political behavior through geographical variables. These include area studies, climate, topography,...

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I am from a country where in the last 15 years Chinese projects and involvement in our economy has increased tremendously.They have funded numerous infrastructure development projects through grants and soft loans, and we are happy to work with them.

Most people outside Africa rarely understand why most African countries are moving to the East. From my view its all about the west always meddling in sovereign countries internal affairs. Ever since cold war, America and its allies have supported and brought down numerous leaders. I have copied a sample extract from Wikipedia and pasted it below of an example of how sometimes the west meddle in other countries affair:

“Shortly after Congolese independence in 1960, a mutiny broke out in the army, marking the beginning of the Congo Crisis. Lumumba attempted to solicit support from the Soviet Union against Katangan secessionists. This led to growing differences with President Joseph Kasa-Vubu and chief-of-staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu as well as to foreign opposition from the United States and Belgium. Lumumba was subsequently imprisoned by state authorities under Mobutu and executed by firing squad under the command of Katangan authorities. The United Nations, which he had asked to come to the Congo, did not intervene to save him. Belgium, the United Kingdom, and the United States have all been accused of involvement in Lumumba's death, the latter as part of Cold War rivalry with the Soviet Union, a country the Americans were determined should not gain access to Congo's uranium riches used to make nuclear bombs.”

We all know of the numerous attempts the west has ruined peaceful countries and left them more chaotic and highly unstable, look at Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya and the list is endless.All this is done in the name of spreading democracy.

Back to your question, on the other hand, China doesn’t meddle in any countries affair, it doesn’t dictate to you how to run your country. Hence most African countries are beginning to open up to the East (China) .

When we were having our election 2013, the west threaten our so called democracy, that if we elected a president with an ICC case, we would face the consequences of our choices.Here’s a link Analysis: Kenyatta's bid for Kenya presidency a diplomatic headache

While China didn’t take sides it left that to the will of the people.

Here is a picture of a road built out of Chinese loans:

Before:

The new standard gauge railway being built:

Before:

All the above have been achieved with China without them dictating how our political system should be run and by who. That is why China is becoming so influential in Africa.

That’s from the African side but from the Chinese side they also have there own interests globally and that is why they are reaching out to the world too.

on September 17, 2016

Ng Man Great article , shared

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Donald Trump may push African countries away from America and closer to China
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